Resources Engines

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This page lists the common browser engines:

Introduction

A browser engine — also called a layout engine or rendering engine — is the core of a web browser, responsible for rendering web pages.

A browser engine can be used by many different browsers. For example, Mozilla engines are used by Epiphany, Firefox, Galeon, K-Meleon, Mozilla, Netscape 6–9, Pale Moon, SeaMonkey, Waterfox, and others. Browsers which use the same version of the same engine should display pages the same if the browsers are configured the same, but there can be differences. For example, some browsers have different default styles — e.g. default background colours — which can create rendering differences without suitable CSS rules.

A problem with some browser engines is that they are based on old versions of mainstream engines: e.g. Pale Moon uses the Goanna engine, which was forked from an old version of the Gecko engine; so Pale Moon will not render pages as well as modern versions of Firefox.

Common Browser Engines

There are two classes of desktop browsers being used by some people: browsers which are being actively developed, and browsers which are nearly extinct.

Actively Developed Browser Engines 

There are three major families of desktop browser engines being actively developed:

Blink Browsers 

BRAVECHROMECHROME ESCEDGEEDGE ESCOPERAVIVALDI
 Chrome 28   Opera 15 
 Chrome 29   Opera 16 
 Chrome 30   Opera 17 
 Chrome 31   Opera 18 
 Chrome 32   Opera 19 
 Chrome 33   Opera 20 
 Chrome 34   Opera 21 
 Chrome 35   Opera 22 
 Chrome 36   Opera 23 
 Chrome 37   Opera 24 
 Chrome 38   Opera 25 
 Chrome 39   Opera 26 
 Chrome 40   Opera 27 
 Chrome 41   Opera 28 
 Chrome 42   Opera 29 
 Chrome 43   Opera 30 
 Chrome 44   Opera 31 
 Chrome 45   Opera 32 
 Chrome 46   Opera 33 
 Chrome 47   Opera 34 
 Chrome 48   Opera 35 
 Chrome 49   Opera 36Vivaldi 1.0
 Chrome 50   Opera 37Vivaldi 1.1
 Chrome 51   Opera 38Vivaldi 1.2
 Chrome 52   Opera 39Vivaldi 1.3
 Chrome 53   Opera 40Vivaldi 1.4
 Chrome 54   Opera 41Vivaldi 1.5
 Chrome 55   Opera 42Vivaldi 1.6
 Chrome 56   Opera 43Vivaldi 1.7
 Chrome 57   Opera 44Vivaldi 1.8
 Chrome 58   Opera 45Vivaldi 1.9
 Chrome 59   Opera 46Vivaldi 1.10
 Chrome 60   Opera 47Vivaldi 1.11
 Chrome 61   Opera 48Vivaldi 1.12
 Chrome 62   Opera 49Vivaldi 1.13
 Chrome 63   Opera 50 
 Chrome 64   Opera 51Vivaldi 1.14
 Chrome 65   Opera 52Vivaldi 1.15
 Chrome 66   Opera 53
 Chrome 67   Opera 54
 Chrome 68   Opera 55
 Chrome 69   Opera 56Vivaldi 2.0
 Chrome 70   Opera 57Vivaldi 2.1
 Chrome 71   Opera 58Vivaldi 2.2
 Chrome 72    Vivaldi 2.3
 Chrome 73   Opera 60Vivaldi 2.4
 Chrome 74    Vivaldi 2.5
 Chrome 75   Opera 62Vivaldi 2.6
 Chrome 76   Opera 63Vivaldi 2.7
 Chrome 77   Opera 64Vivaldi 2.8
 Chrome 78   Opera 65Vivaldi 2.9
 Chrome 79 Edge 79 Opera 66Vivaldi 2.10
 Chrome 80 Edge 80 Opera 67Vivaldi 2.11
 Chrome 81 Edge 81 Opera 68Vivaldi 3.0
 Chrome 82 Edge 82 Opera 69Vivaldi 3.1
 Chrome 83 Edge 83 Opera 70Vivaldi 3.2
 Chrome 85 Edge 85 Opera 71Vivaldi 3.3
 Chrome 86 Edge 86 Opera 72Vivaldi 3.4
 Chrome 87 Edge 87 Opera 73Vivaldi 3.5
 Chrome 88 Edge 88 Opera 74Vivaldi 3.6
 Chrome 89 Edge 89 Opera 75Vivaldi 3.7
 Chrome 90 Edge 90 Opera 76Vivaldi 3.8
Brave 1.26Chrome 91 Edge 91 Opera 77Vivaldi 4.0
Brave 1.27Chrome 92 Edge 92 Opera 78Vivaldi 4.1
Brave 1.29Chrome 93 Edge 93 Opera 79Vivaldi 4.2
Brave 1.30Chrome 94Chrome 94 ESCEdge 94Edge 94 ESCOpera 80Vivaldi 4.3
Brave 1.31Chrome 95 Edge 95 Opera 81
Brave 1.32–1.33Chrome 96Chrome 96 ESCEdge 96Edge 96 ESROpera 82Vivaldi 5.0
Brave 1.34Chrome 97 Edge 97 Opera 83
Brave 1.35Chrome 98Chrome 98 ESCEdge 98Edge 98 ESCOpera 84Vivaldi 5.1
Brave 1.36Chrome 99 Edge 99 Opera 85
Brave 1.37Chrome 100Chrome 100 ESCEdge 100Edge 100 ESCOpera 86Vivaldi 5.2
Brave 1.38Chrome 101 Edge 101 Opera 87
Brave 1.39Chrome 102Chrome 102 ESCEdge 102Edge 102 ESCOpera 88Vivaldi 5.3
Brave 1.40–1.41Chrome 103 Edge 103 Opera 89
Brave 1.42Chrome 104Chrome 104 ESCEdge 104Edge 104 ESCOpera 90Vivaldi 5.4
Brave 1.43Chrome 105 Edge 105 Opera 91
Brave 1.44Chrome 106Chrome 106 ESCEdge 106Edge 106 ESCOpera 92Vivaldi 5.5
Brave 1.45Chrome 107 Edge 107 Opera 93
Brave 1.46Chrome 108Chrome 108ESCEdge 108Edge 108ESCOpera 94Vivaldi 5.6
Brave 1.47Chrome 109 Edge 109 Opera 95
Brave 1.48Chrome 110Chrome 110ESCEdge 110Edge 110ESCOpera 96Vivaldi 5.7
Brave 1.49Chrome 111 Edge 111 Opera 97
Brave 1.50Chrome 112Chrome 112ESCEdge 112Edge 112ESCOpera 98Vivaldi 6.0
Brave 1.51Chrome 113Chrome 113ESCEdge 113 Opera 99
Brave 1.52Chrome 114Chrome 114ESCEdge 114Edge 114ESCOpera 100Vivaldi 6.1
Brave 1.56Chrome 115 Edge 115 Opera 101
Brave 1.57Chrome 116Chrome 116ESCEdge 116Edge 116ESCOpera 102Vivaldi 6.2
Brave 1.58Chrome 117 Edge 117 Opera 103
Brave 1.59Chrome 118Chrome 118ESCEdge 118Edge 118ESCOpera 104Vivaldi 6.4
Brave 1.60Chrome 119 Edge 119 Opera 105
Brave 1.61Chrome 120Chrome 120ESCEdge 120Edge 120ESCOpera 106Vivaldi 6.5
Brave 1.62Chrome 121 Edge 121 Opera 107
 Chrome 122Chrome 122ESC

Browsers Using Mozilla’s Gecko Engines 

Browsers Using Mozilla Gecko Goanna Engines 
ENGINEK-MELEON
Goanna 3.6.0K-Meleon 76.5.0
ENGINEPALE MOON
Goanna 4.1Pale Moon 28
Goanna 4.2Pale Moon 28
Goanna 4.3Pale Moon 28
Goanna 4.4Pale Moon 28.7–28.8
Goanna 4.5Pale Moon 28.9
Goanna 4.5Pale Moon 28.13
Goanna 4.6Pale Moon 28.14
Goanna 4.7Pale Moon 28.15–28.16
Goanna 4.8Pale Moon 29
Goanna 5.0Pale Moon 30
Goanna 5.1Pale Moon 31
Goanna 6.0-6.1Pale Moon 32
Goanna 6.6.n.nPale Moon 33
Browsers Using Mozilla Gecko Quantum Engines 
ENGINEFIREFOX,
FIREFOX PORTABLE
FIREFOX ESRSEAMONKEYTORWATERFOX CURRENTWATERFOX CLASSIC
Gecko 57.0Firefox 57.0
Gecko 58.0Firefox 58.0
Gecko 59.0Firefox 59.0
Gecko 60.0Firefox 60.0Firefox ESR 60–60.9Seamonkey 2.53.1–2.53.9 Waterfox 56.2
Gecko 61.0Firefox 61.0
Gecko 62.0Firefox 62.0
Gecko 63.0Firefox 63.0
Gecko 64.0Firefox 64.0
Gecko 65.0Firefox 65.0
Gecko 66.0Firefox 66.0
Gecko 67.0Firefox 67.0
Gecko 68.0Firefox 68.0Firefox ESR 68.0–68.12SeaMonkey 2.53.10.nn-2.53.15 Waterfox 2019.10–2020-10Waterfox 2019.10–2021-09
Gecko 69.0Firefox 69.0
Gecko 70.0Firefox 70.0
Gecko 71.0Firefox 71.0
Gecko 72.0Firefox 72.0
Gecko 73.0Firefox 73.0
Gecko 74.0Firefox 74.0
Gecko 75.0Firefox 75.0
Gecko 76.0Firefox 76.0
Gecko 77.0Firefox 77.0
Gecko 78.0Firefox 78.0Firefox ESR 78.0–78.14  Waterfox G3n.n
Gecko 80.0Firefox 80.0
Gecko 81.0Firefox 81.0
Gecko 82.0Firefox 82.0
Gecko 83.0Firefox 83.0
Gecko 84.0Firefox 84.0
Gecko 85.0Firefox 85.0
Gecko 86.0Firefox 86.0
Gecko 87.0Firefox 87.0
Gecko 88.0Firefox 88.0
Gecko 89.0Firefox 89.0
Gecko 90.0Firefox 90.0
Gecko 91.0Firefox 91.0Firefox ESR 91.n.nnSeaMonkey 2.53.17–2.53.18.1TOR 11.0.nn,11.5.nnWaterfox G4n.n
Gecko 92.0Firefox 92.0
Gecko 93.0Firefox 93.0
Gecko 94.0Firefox 94.0
Gecko 95.0Firefox 95.0
Gecko 96.0Firefox 96.0
Gecko 97.0Firefox 97.0.2
Gecko 98.0Firefox 98.0.2
Gecko 99.0Firefox 99.0.1
Gecko 100.0Firefox 100.0.2
Gecko 101.0Firefox 101.0.1
Gecko 102.0Firefox 102.2.0Firefox ESR 102.n.nn TOR 12.0.nnWaterfox G5.n.n
Gecko 103.0Firefox 103.0.2
Gecko 104.0Firefox 104.0.2
Gecko 105.0Firefox 105.0.3
Gecko 106.0Firefox 107.0
Gecko 107.0Firefox 107.0.1
Gecko 108.0Firefox 108.0.2
Gecko 109.0Firefox 109.0.1
Gecko 110.0Firefox 110.0.1
Gecko 111.0Firefox 111.0.1
Gecko 112.0Firefox 112.0.2
Gecko 113.0Firefox 113.0.2
Gecko 114.0Firefox 114.0.2
Gecko 115.0Firefox 115.0.3Firefox ESR 115.n.nn TOR 13.nnWaterfox G6.n.n
Gecko 116.0Firefox 116.0.3
Gecko 117.0Firefox 117.0.1
Gecko 118.0Firefox 118.0.2
Gecko 110.0Firefox 119.0.1
Gecko 120.0Firefox 120.0.1
Gecko 121.0Firefox 121.0.1
Gecko 122.0Firefox 122.0.1
Gecko 123.0Firefox 123.0

Browsers Using Apple’s Webkit Engines 

EDGECHROMEOPERAVIVALDI
 Chrome 1  
 Chrome 2  
 Chrome 3  
 Chrome 4  
 Chrome 5  
 Chrome 6  
 Chrome 7  
 Chrome 8  
 Chrome 9  
 Chrome 10  
 Chrome 11  
 Chrome 12  
 Chrome 13  
 Chrome 14  
 Chrome 15  
 Chrome 16  
 Chrome 17  
 Chrome 18  
 Chrome 19  
 Chrome 20  
 Chrome 21  
 Chrome 22  
 Chrome 23  
 Chrome 24  
 Chrome 25  
 Chrome 26  
 Chrome 27  

Apple Safari’s browser engine is based on Konqueror’s KHTML engine, used by Chrome, OmniWeb, Opera (versions 15+), Safari, and Vivaldi.

ENGINESAFARI
WebKit 85Safari 1.0
WebKit 100Safari 1.1
WebKit 125Safari 1.2
WebKit 312Safari 1.3
WebKit 412–419Safari 2.0
WebKit 522–523Safari 3.0
WebKit 525Safari 3.1–3.2
WebKit 526–533.16, 533.17.8, 533.18.5, 533.19.4Safari 4.0
WebKit 533.16, 533.17.8, 533.18.5, 533.19.4, 533.20–534.59Safari 5.0
WebKit 536–537.73.11, 537.78.2, 537.85.17Safari 6.0
WebKit 537.71, 537.73.11, 537.75.14, 537.76.4, 537.77.4, 537.78.2, 537.85.17Safari 7.0
WebKit 538.35.8–600.7.12Safari 8.0
WebKit 601.1.56–601.7.8Safari 9.0
WebKit 602.1.50–602.4.8Safari 10.0
WebKit 603.1.30–603.3.8Safari 10.1
WebKit ?–?Safari 11.nn
WebKit ?–?Safari 12.nn
WebKit ?–?Safari 13.nn
WebKit ?–?Safari 24.nn

Nearly-Extinct Browser Engines 

There are also four minor families of desktop browser engines no longer being actively developed — nearly extinct — but still used by some people:

Browsers Using Gecko Classic Engines 

Some people use Classic Gecko browsers, even though Mozilla abandoned them years ago.

ENGINEFIREFOXFIREFOX ESRMOZILLA/SEAMONKEYNETSCAPE
Gecko 1.0  Mozilla 1.0Netscape 7.0
Gecko 1.4  Mozilla 1.4Netscape 7.1
Gecko 1.7Firefox 1.0 Mozilla 1.7Netscape 7.2, Netscape 8.0–8.13
Gecko 1.8Firefox 1.5 SeaMonkey 1.0
Gecko 1.8.1Firefox 2.0 SeaMonkey 1.1Netscape 9
Gecko 1.9.0Firefox 3.0
Gecko 1.9.1Firefox 3.5 SeaMonkey 2
Gecko 1.9.2Firefox 3.6
Gecko 2.0Firefox 4.0 SeaMonkey 2.1
Gecko 5.0Firefox 5.0 SeaMonkey 2.2
Gecko 6.0Firefox 6.0 SeaMonkey 2.3
Gecko 7.0Firefox 7.0 SeaMonkey 2.4
Gecko 8.0Firefox 8.0 SeaMonkey 2.5
Gecko 9.0Firefox 9.0 SeaMonkey 2.6
Gecko 10.0Firefox 10.0Firefox ESR 10SeaMonkey 2.7
Gecko 11.0Firefox 11.0 SeaMonkey 2.8
Gecko 12.0Firefox 12.0 SeaMonkey 2.9
Gecko 13.0Firefox 13.0 SeaMonkey 2.10
Gecko 14.0Firefox 14.0 SeaMonkey 2.11
Gecko 15.0Firefox 15.0Firefox ESR 17SeaMonkey 2.12
Gecko 16.0Firefox 16.0 SeaMonkey 2.13
Gecko 17.0Firefox 17.0 SeaMonkey 2.14
Gecko 18.0Firefox 18.0 SeaMonkey 2.15
Gecko 19.0Firefox 19.0 SeaMonkey 2.16
Gecko 20.0Firefox 20.0 SeaMonkey 2.17
Gecko 21.0Firefox 21.0 SeaMonkey 2.18
Gecko 22.0Firefox 22.0 SeaMonkey 2.19
Gecko 23.0Firefox 23.0 SeaMonkey 2.20
Gecko 24.0Firefox 24.0Firefox ESR 24SeaMonkey 2.21
Gecko 25.0Firefox 25.0 SeaMonkey 2.22
Gecko 26.0Firefox 26.0 SeaMonkey 2.23
Gecko 27.0Firefox 27.0 SeaMonkey 2.24
Gecko 28.0Firefox 28.0 SeaMonkey 2.25
Gecko 29.0Firefox 29.0 SeaMonkey 2.26
Gecko 30.0Firefox 30.0
Gecko 31.0Firefox 31.0Firefox ESR 31
Gecko 32.0Firefox 32.0 SeaMonkey 2.29
Gecko 33.0Firefox 33.1 SeaMonkey 2.30
Gecko 34.0Firefox 34.0 SeaMonkey 2.31
Gecko 35.0Firefox 35.0 SeaMonkey 2.32
Gecko 36.0Firefox 36.0 SeaMonkey 2.33
Gecko 37.0Firefox 37.0
Gecko 38.0Firefox 38.0Firefox ESR 38SeaMonkey 2.35
Gecko 39.0Firefox 39.0
Gecko 40.0Firefox 40.0
Gecko 41.0Firefox 41.0 SeaMonkey 2.38
Gecko 42.0Firefox 42.0 SeaMonkey 2.39
Gecko 43.0Firefox 43.0 SeaMonkey 2.40
Gecko 44.0Firefox 44.0
Gecko 45.0Firefox 45.0Firefox ESR 45
Gecko 46.0Firefox 46.0
Gecko 47.0Firefox 47.0
Gecko 48.0Firefox 48.0
Gecko 49.0Firefox 49.0 SeaMonkey 2.46
Gecko 50.0Firefox 50.0
Gecko 51.0Firefox 51.0 SeaMonkey 2.48
Gecko 52.0Firefox 52.0Firefox ESR 60–60.9SeaMonkey 2.49
Gecko 53.0Firefox 53.0
Gecko 54.0Firefox 54.0
Gecko 55.0Firefox 55.0
Gecko 56.0Firefox 56.0

Browsers Using Microsoft’s Edge::HTML Engines 

EDGE::HTML
Edge 12
Edge 13
Edge 14
Edge 15
Edge 16
Edge 17
Edge 18

Browsers Using Opera’s Presto Engines 

Some people use Opera’s Presto-based browsers, even though Opera abandoned them many years ago.

ENGINEOPERA
Presto 1.0Opera 7
Presto ?.?Opera 8
Presto 2.1.1Opera 9
Presto 2.2Opera 10.00–10.10
Presto 2.5Opera 10.5x
Presto 2.6Opera 10.6x
Presto 2.7Opera 11.0x
Presto 2.8Opera 11.1x
Presto 2.9Opera 11.5x
Presto 2.10Opera 11.6x
Presto 2.10Opera 12.0x

Browsers Using Microsoft’s Trident Engines 

Trident is used by IE4–11, MSN Explorer, Netscape 8, most AOL browsers, Avant, Maxthon, SlimBrowser, and many more).

The numbering of Internet Explorer’s browser engine became really strange after IE7: IE8 uses Trident 4, but IE6 uses Trident IV; and IE9 uses Trident 5, but IE7 uses Trident V. Presumably no one at Microsoft knows that IV is 4, or V is 5: the engine for IE8 should have been called Trident VI or Trident 6; and the engine for IE9 should have been called Trident VII or Trident 7.

ENGINEINTERNET EXPLORER
Trident IIE 4.0x
Trident IIIE 5.0x
Trident IIIIE 5.5x
Trident IVIE 6
Trident VIE 7
Trident 4IE 8
Trident 5IE 9
Trident 6IE 10
Trident 7IE 11
Trident 8IE 11 // Windows 10

Identifying Browser Engines

There are a few principles a designer should consider when trying to identify browser engines:

A sample brow­ser snif­fer exists which applies the above principles.

 

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